Dukkhaṃ Ariyasaccaṃ (Noble Truth of Suffering)
|A depiction of the first teaching of the Buddha from a Vietnamese Buddhist monastery in Quebec, Canada.|
Dukkha - "incapable of satisfying,"[web 1] "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena"; "painful." Dukkha is most commonly translated as "suffering". According to Khantipalo, this is an incorrect translation, since it refers to the ultimately unsatisfactory nature of temporary states and things, including pleasant but temporary experiences. According to Emmanuel, Dukkha is the opposite of sukha, "pleasure," and it is better translated as "pain."